We investigate the many meanings behind quantum terminology with the assistance of Tyndall quantum physicist - Dr Emanuele Pelucchi.
The fundamental theory in physics that describes nature at the smallest scale of dimensions, motion and energy spectra of atoms and subatomic particles.
Very much used interchangeably as a synonymous of quantum mechanics. But more accurate as “Mechanics” is a term used for historical reasons. “Quantum Physics“ is not limited to “Mechanics” which strictly could be used in the restrictive meaning of a theory that describes the displacement in time of bodies under specific forces.
Similarly to above, very much used as a synonymous of quantum mechanics, used often to underline the mathematical aspects and analysis involved in understanding nature’s laws at the smallest scales.
Quantum technology is an emerging field of physics and engineering, which is about creating practical applications - such as quantum computing, quantum sensors, quantum cryptography, quantum simulation, quantum metrology and quantum imaging - based on properties of quantum mechanics, especially quantum superposition and quantum entanglement.
Quantum computing is the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform computation.
An unobserved particle exists in many possible states simultaneously.
When two particles are prepared in a superposition (entangled) state they remain connected so observing the state of one immediately affects the other, even when separated by great distances.
The fundamental information unit of Quantum based on a superposition state.
Another Quantum Technology! The oddities of quantum mechanics can be exploited to send secure messages through the internet (and specifically the optical fiber network) which cannot be intercepted by third party without revealing the hack. The art of achieving so is known as quantum cryptography, which effectively delivers what is known as quantum communication.
Today’s internet is constructed by a number of local computers (nodes) connected by optical signal travelling through optical fibers. One way to exploit quantum computation in full, is that of building a quantum internet where the nodes are formed by quantum computing hubs, and the quantum information to be shared between the nodes (in the form of multi-entangled bits) via the same photonic fiber network in place today.